D-Limonene- Terpene Profile
With its sweet and citrusy odor, it is one of the most frequently used fragrances in cosmetic formulations. In addition, it’s one of the most common terpenes in nature. It can be found in several food items but also in botanical insecticides and cleaning products. The medical properties of D-Limonene are well observed and include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antinociceptive, anticancer, antidiabetic, antihyperalgesic and antiviral effects.
Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models.
Anti-anxiety & Sedative
Anti-stress effects of d-limonene and its metabolite perillyl alcohol.
Anxiolytic and sedative effects of extracts and essential oil from Citrus aurantium L.
Effects of the essential oil from Citrus aurantium L. in experimental anxiety models in mice.
Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown.
Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model.
Limonene reduces hyperalgesia induced by gp120 and cytokines by modulation of IL-1 β and protein expression in spinal cord of mice.
Reduces Drug-Dependency Behavior
Limonene Inhibits Methamphetamine-Induced Sensitizations via the Regulation of Dopamine Receptor Supersensitivity
Targeting apoptosis pathway with natural terpenoids: implications for treatment of breast and prostate cancer.
Induction of apoptosis by D-limonene is mediated by inactivation of Akt in LS174T human colon cancer cells.
Limonene-induced regression of mammary carcinomas.
Limonene suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages.
In vivo & in vitro
Oral administration of d-limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans.
High D-Limonene strain-specific terpene formulations:
Wound Healing Effect of Essential Oil Extracted from Eugenia dysenterica DC (Myrtaceae) Leaves
Protective Effect of D-Limonene against Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Damage in Human Lens Epithelial Cells via the p38 Pathway.